who built göbekli tepe

At the western edge of the hill, a lionlike figure was found. The pole features three figures, the uppermost depicting a predator, probably a bear, and below it a human-like shape. Andrew’s latest book Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods is the culmination of twenty years’ study of the origins of the Watchers and Nephilim of the book of Enoch, and the Anunnaki of Sumerian myth and legend. Based on everything we know, Göbekli Tepe shouldn’t exist. Göbekli Tepe: Southeast‐Hollow. And their target: the setting down on the local horizon of Deneb, Cygnus’s brightest star, which marked the start of the Milky Way’s Great Rift, a role played by Deneb as early as 16,500-14,000 BC. In: K. Schmidt: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt." Even after Göbekli Tepe was abandoned, its memory, and those of the ruling elite behind its construction, lingered on among the Halaf and Ubaid peoples who flourished during the later half of the Neolithic age, ca. by Graham Hancock, Eater of Souls Göbekli Tepe may very well be the very first thing human beings every built. I stand by this statement and add only that with his vast knowledge of the subject under discussion, there is no one better suited to reveal Göbekli Tepe’s place in history today”, Graham Hancock from his Introduction
 to Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods. Built by a mysterious people more than 12,000 years ago, archaeologists have still not excavated the site entirely. However, the complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten to be gradually destroyed by the elements. Billed as the oldest stone temple in the world, it is composed of a series of megalithic structures containing rings of beautifully carved T-shaped pillars. A site that is 500 years younger is Nevalı Çori, a Neolithic settlement. Whoever built it, made sure the complex would survive along thousands of years, by backfilling the various sites and burying them deep under. Perhaps a monument built to remember what had occurred before the civilization was lost forever? All across Europe, and into Southwest Asia, accounts exist of supernatural foxes and wolves that have attempted to endanger the sky pillar supporting the starry canopy, an act that if achieved would have brought about the destruction of the world. When around 11,000 BC Vega moved out of range of the celestial pole, no bright star replaced it for several thousand years. No, Göbekli Tepe was not built by Aboriginal Australians. Standing stones erected in the north-northwestern sections of the walls in two key enclosures at Göbekli Tepe bore large holes that framed the setting of Deneb each night, highlighting the star’s significance to the Göbekli builders, and showing the precise direction in which the shaman should access the sky world. Recent DNA analysis of modern domesticated wheat compared with wild wheat has shown that its DNA is closest in sequence to wild wheat found on Karaca Dağ 30 km (20 mi) away from the site, suggesting that this is where modern wheat was first domesticated. So far, very little evidence for residential use has been found. He is the author of more than a dozen books that challenge the way we perceive the past. They range from 10 to 30 metres in diameter. Some researchers believe that the construction of Göbekli Tepe may have contributed to the later development of urban civilization, or, as excavator Klaus Schmidt put it, "First came the temple, then the city."[54]. [7] During the first phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected—the world's oldest known megaliths.[8]. [49] It is apparent that the animal and other images give no indication of organized violence, i.e. Agriculture and animal husbandry were barely known when Göbekli Tepe was built, and roaming the fertile landscape of southwest Asia were, we are told, primitive hunter-gatherers, whose sole existence revolved around survival on a day-to-day basis. Ian Hodder of Stanford University said, "Göbekli Tepe changes everything. Stonehenge was built in 3000 BC, and the oldest signs of human writing were created in Sumer in 3,300 BC. Göbekli Tepe follows a geometric pattern. Two hundred of their number are said to have descended among mortal kind and taken mortal wives, who produced giant offspring called Nephilim. Comments on 14C-Dates from Göbekli Tepe. Yet it seems unlikely that those who came up with a plan to counter the innate fear of another cataclysm (something that visionary and writer Barbara Hand Clow so aptly calls catastrophobia) were the indigenous population. ), Metin Yeşilyurt, "Die wissenschaftliche Interpretation von Göbeklitepe: Die Theorie und das Forschungsprogramm". Three can easily be identified as the Euphrates, Tigris and Araxes (the biblical Gihon), which all rise in eastern Anatolia. [40], A stone pillar resembling totem pole designs was discovered at Göbekli Tepe, Layer II in 2010. [42] In addition to Byblos points (weapon heads, such as arrowheads etc.) He began excavations the following year and soon unearthed the first of the huge T-shaped pillars. [29] It is unclear, on the other hand, how to classify three phallic depictions from the surface of the southern plateau. Here they gained control of the regional trade in the black volcanic glass known as obsidian at places like Bingöl Mountain in the Armenian Highlands and Nemrut Dağ an extinct volcano close to the shores of Lake Van, Turkey’s largest inland sea. Because the statue is damaged, the interpretation is not entirely clear. [24] On top of the ridge there is considerable evidence of human impact, in addition to the construction of the tell. Continuing the naming pattern, it is called "complex E". 9500-9000 BC, there was no Pole Star. [46], Schmidt also interpreted the site in connection with the initial stages of the Neolithic. More incredibly, anatomical evidence points to them being of striking appearance – tall, with extremely long heads, high cheekbones, long faces, large jaws, and strong brow ridges, which some have seen as evidence they were Neanderthal-human hybrids. In 2018, the site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ein Forschungsbericht zum präkeramischen Neolithikum Obermesopotamiens". The reliefs depict mammals such as lions, bulls, boars, foxes, gazelles, and donkeys; snakes and other reptiles; arthropods such as insects and arachnids; and birds, particularly vultures. List of archaeological sites by continent and age, "Girê Mirozan Rihayê dike navenda geshtyariyê", "Göbeklitepe Neyi Saklıyor? It consists of loose sediments caused by erosion and the virtually-uninterrupted use of the hill for agricultural purposes since it ceased to operate as a ceremonial center. It is a story told in his book Beneath the Pyramids (2009). [34] Many of the pillars are decorated with abstract, enigmatic pictograms and carved animal reliefs. On top of the ridge there is considerable evidence of human impact, in addition to the construction of the tell. At 12000 years, Gobekli Tepe is the oldest known stone ruins whose builders are unknown. Some of the T-shaped pillars have human arms carved on their lower half, however, suggesting to site excavator Schmidt that they are intended to represent the bodies of stylized humans (or perhaps deities). Yet there were clearly other reasons for the construction of Göbekli Tepe. Also, an older layer at Gobekli features some related sculptures portraying animals on human heads.[41]. Presumably this is the remains of a Roman watchtower that was part of the Limes Arabicus, though this is conjecture.[28]. The two other unfinished pillars lie on the southern Plateau. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit.". The answer is the Swiderians, whose mining operations in Poland’s Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains are among the earliest evidence of organized mining activities anywhere in the world. Were they the true founders of civilization? Göbekli Tepe is on a flat and barren plateau, with buildings fanning in all directions. State of Research and New Data", "Israeli Archaeologists Find Hidden Pattern at 'World's Oldest Temple' Göbekli Tepe", "Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey", "New Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites and cult centres in the Urfa Region", "Turkey: Archeological dig reshaping human history", "Karahan Tepe: A new cultural centre in the Urfa area in Turkey", "A small-scale cult centre in southeast Turkey: Harbetsuvan Tepesi", "New pre-pottery neolithic settlements from Viranşehir District", "Concrete poured on Turkish World Heritage site", "Construction around site of Göbeklitepe stirs debate", "So Fair a House: Göbekli Tepe and the Identification of Temples in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the Near East", http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/gobekli-tepe.html, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/06/gobekli-tepe/mann-text, "Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment, "Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey. More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are known (as of May 2020) through geophysical surveys. Butchered bones found in large numbers from local game such as deer, gazelle, pigs, and geese have been identified as refuse from food hunted and cooked or otherwise prepared for the congregants. Their most notable feature is the presence of T-shaped limestone pillars evenly set within thick interior walls composed of unworked stone. The site has been partially excavated, mainly through the efforts of Klaus Schmidt working for the German Archaeological Institute. by Graham Hancock, Mitra Politi Most structures on the plateau seem to be the result of Neolithic quarrying, with the quarries being used as sources for the huge, monolithic architectural elements. Unequivocally Neolithic are three T-shaped pillars that had not yet been levered out of the bedrock. It remains unknown how a population large enough to construct, augment, and maintain such a substantial complex was mobilized and compensated or fed in the conditions of pre-sedentary society. Excavations have taken place at the southern slope of the tell, south and west of a mulberry that marks an Islamic pilgrimage, but archaeological finds … GrahamHancock.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to products on Amazon. This platform corresponds to the complexes from Layer III at the tell. "Built by Neolithic communities 11,500 to 11,000 years ago, it features enormous, round stone structures and … The H glyphs seem to relate to the shaman’s journey from this world to the otherworld, while the C glyphs are almost certainly slim lunar crescents signifying the transition from one lunar cycle to the next. Though no tombs or graves have yet been found, Schmidt believed that graves remain to be discovered in niches located behind the walls of the sacred circles. ", "Which came first, monumental building projects or farming? [citation needed]. It is very possibly these great ancestors who are perhaps represented by the snake- or reptilian-headed clay figurines found in several Ubaid cemeteries. Their elites, who would appear to have belonged to specific family groups, artificially deformed their already elongated heads, not only to denote their status in society, but also quite possibly to mimic the perceived appearance of great ancestors, seen to have possessed extremely long heads and faces. Schmidt identified this story as a primeval oriental myth that preserves a partial memory of the emerging Neolithic. In defense of an archaeology of cult at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe", "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple? Rectangular buildings make a more efficient use of space compared with circular structures. Somehow the world had changed, and the impetus for creating gigantic stone temples with enormous twin monoliths at their centers was no longer there. [6][43] Schmidt believed that what he called this "cathedral on a hill" was a pilgrimage destination attracting worshippers up to 150 km (90 mi) distant. Göbekli Tepe is considered the world’s first temple. Fragments of a similar pole also were discovered about 20 years ago in another site in Turkey at Nevalı Çori. Invariably the structures are ovoid in shape, with a length to breadth ratio of 5:4, numbers that could hint at the Göbekli builders’ profound awareness of cosmic time cycles not usually thought to have been understood until the age of Plato. Built by an incredibly religious set of hunter-gatherers, Göbekli Tepe holds the singular honor of being the world’s oldest known temple. [17][18] The hill had long been under agricultural cultivation, and generations of local inhabitants had frequently moved rocks and placed them in clearance piles, which may have disturbed the upper layers of the site. The tell includes two phases of use, believed to be of a social or ritual nature by site discoverer and excavator Klaus Schmidt,[6] dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. Their profiles were pecked into the rock, with the detached blocks then levered out of the rock bank. Based on the assumption that such a massive construction project would have been beyond the capacities of the small, non-sedentary groups that usually comprise hunter-gatherer societies, most scholars have assumed that all the circles at Göbekli Tepe had to have been built gradually over a long … Alternatively, they could have served as totems. So what is Göbekli Tepe? Since its discovery, however, surface surveys have shown that several hills in the greater area also have 'T'-shaped stone pillars (e.g. New structures were built to replace them, but as time went on they became much smaller in construction, until eventually the cell-like buildings were no larger than a family-sized Jacuzzi with pillars no more than five feet (a meter and a half) in height. Over a period of around 1,500 years twenty or more major enclosures were constructed within the gradually emerging occupational mound at Göbekli Tepe. “Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological wonder,” says Prof. Gopher. [6][50][51] Expanding on Schmidt's interpretation that round enclosures could represent sanctuaries, Gheorghiu's semiotic interpretation reads the Göbekli Tepe iconography as a cosmogonic map that would have related the local community to the surrounding landscape and the cosmos. And whenever this supernatural creature returned to the heavens in the guise of a comet—seen as a visible manifestation of the sky fox or sky wolf—it would be the shaman’s role to enter the sky world and counter its baleful influence, a primary motivation I see as behind the construction of Göbekli Tepe. When and where was it discovered? The largest of them lies on the northern plateau. Located around … Local tradition asserts that Bingöl was also the source of the fourth river of Paradise, the Pison, while ancient writers record that the true source of the Tigris was in the same region. Had this information been given to the local hunter-gatherers of the region by incoming Swiderian groups, whose elongated heads and long ancestry was connected with their origins as Neanderthal-human hybrids? “Built by Neolithic communities 11,500 to 11,000 years ago, it features enormous, round stone structures and monumental stone pillars up to 5.5 meters high. Let’s put that in perspective. The team has also found many remains of tools. The pictograms may represent commonly understood sacred symbols, as known from Neolithic cave paintings elsewhere. The advent of agriculture and animal husbandry brought new realities to human life in the area, and the "Stone-age zoo" (Schmidt's phrase applied particularly to Layer III, Enclosure D) apparently lost whatever significance it had had for the region's older, foraging communities. He called it ‘the Rome of the Ice Age’. Radiocarbon dating as well as comparative stylistical analysis indicate that it is the oldest known temple yet discovered anywhere. Called variously Charaxio, Seir, or Sir, this mountain is linked in early Christian tradition with the site inhabited by the generations of Adam following the expulsion of the first couple from Paradise. As there is little or no evidence of habitation, and many of the animals pictured are predators, the stones may have been intended to stave off evils through some form of magic representation. They are near the quarries of classical times, making their dating difficult. Here, for the past ten thousand years, its secrets have remained hidden beneath an artificial, belly-shaped mound of earth some 330 by 220 yards (300 m by 200 meters) in size. [26] The authors of the paper discuss the implications of their findings. It was a concept dimly remembered in the name Göbekli Tepe, which in Turkish means “navel-like hill.”. [66][67], archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage Site. K. Schmidt, "Göbekli Tepe. This brought them into contact with the communities who would later be responsible for the construction of Göbekli Tepe around 9500-9000 BC. When the site was first surveyed by archaeologists from Istanbul, it was thought to be little more than an abandoned Medieval cemetery. [52], Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of great importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. They include From the Ashes of Angels (1996), which establishes that the Watchers of the book of Enoch and the Anunnaki of the Sumerian texts are the memory of a shamanic elite that catalyzed the Neolithic revolution in the Near East at the end of the last ice age; Gateway to Atlantis (2000), which pins down the source of Plato’s Atlantis to the Caribbean island of Cuba and the Bahaman archipelago; Tutankhamun: The Exodus Conspiracy (coauthored with Chris Ogilvie Herald, 2002), which reveals the truth behind the discovery of Tutankhamun’s famous tomb; and The Cygnus Mystery (2007), which shows that the constellation of Cygnus has been universally venerated as the place of first creation and the entrance to the sky world since Paleolithic times. Why on earth was Göbekli Tepe built? This phase saw the builders erect large concentric stone circles and place numerous massive t-shaped stone pillars, which average six meters in height, with a weight of around 10 tons. After this time the role of Pole Star went to Vega in the constellation of Lyra, the celestial lyre. This appears to have been orchestrated by members of an incoming culture, composed of groups of shamans, warriors, hunters and stone tool specialists of immense power and charisma. Known as Göbekli Tepe (pronounced Guh-behk-LEE TEH-peh), the site is vaguely reminiscent of Stonehenge, except that Göbekli Tepe was built much earlier and … “Built by Neolithic communities 11,500 to 11,000 years ago, it features enormous, round stone structures and monumental stone pillars up to 5.5 meters high. This corresponds well with an ancient Sumerian belief that agriculture, animal husbandry, and weaving were brought to humans from the sacred mountain Ekur, which was inhabited by Annuna deities, very ancient deities without individual names. These people were most likely the product of interactions between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans at the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic age, c. 40,000-30,000 BC. The Swiderians’ highly advanced culture, which included a sophisticated stone tool technology, was derived from their distant ancestors, the Eastern Gravettian peoples that thrived between 30,000 and 19,000 BC in what is today the Czech Republic and further east on the Russian Plain. This meant that when Göbekli Tepe was constructed, ca. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for the ‘hill of the navel’) is a 1000 foot diameter mound located at the highest point of a mountain ridge, around 9 miles northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (Urfa) in southeastern Turkey. [45], Schmidt considered Göbekli Tepe a central location for a cult of the dead and that the carved animals are there to protect the dead. A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. The elite of the Halaf and Ubaid were probably the forerunners of the god-kings who ruled the first city-states down on the Mesopotamian plain, which eventually became the civilizations of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylon. So, researchers originally didn’t think much of it when a few meager stone structures were discovered on the hilltop in the 1960s. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie. Scholars have been unable to interpret the pictograms, and do not know what meaning the animal reliefs had for visitors to the site. Heun et al., "Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprinting", K. Schmidt 2000: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt.". So, to finally answer the question of who built Göbekli Tepe: Stone Age people coming from a radius of roughly 200km around the site. The details of the structure's function remain a mystery. Geophysical surveys indicate that there are 16 more, enclosing up to eight pillars each, amounting to nearly 200 pillars in all. Few humanoid figures have appeared in the art at Göbekli Tepe. He reviewed the archaeological literature on the surrounding area, found the 1963 Chicago researchers' brief description of Göbekli Tepe, and decided to reexamine the site. Having found similar structures at Nevalı Çori, he recognized the possibility that the rocks and slabs were prehistoric. Yet, Gobekli Tepe was a pre-agricultural society; it was built before people in the region started farming. [4] The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. 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